Viking Бот Вконтакте
According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, and it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. Another etymology, that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.
In that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about , the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders.
As in the Old Norse usages, the term is not employed as a name for any people or culture in general. The word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts. The word Viking was introduced into Modern English during the 18th-century Viking revival, at which point it acquired romanticised heroic overtones of " barbarian warrior" or noble savage.
During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer to not only seaborne raiders from Scandinavia and other places settled by them like Iceland and the Faroe Islands , but also any member of the culture that produced said raiders during the period from the late 8th to the midth centuries, or more loosely from about to as late as about As an adjective, the word is used to refer to ideas, phenomena, or artefacts connected with those people and their cultural life, producing expressions like Viking age, Viking culture, Viking art, Viking religion, Viking ship and so on.
Roslagen is located along the coast of the northern tip of the pink area marked "Swedes and Goths". The Vikings were known as Ascomanni "ashmen" by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats,  Dubgail and Finngail "dark and fair foreigners" by the Irish,  Lochlannach "lake person" by the Gaels  and Dene Dane by the Anglo-Saxons.
The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians Russian: Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were generally known as Danes or heathen and the Irish knew them as pagans or gentiles. It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon. Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. Viking Age Sea-faring Danes depicted invading England.
Illuminated illustration from the 12th century Miscellany on the Life of St. Edmund Pierpont Morgan Library The period from the earliest recorded raids in the s until the Norman conquest of England in is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history.
The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy —in the 10th century.
In that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Two Vikings even ascended to the throne of England, with Sweyn Forkbeard claiming the English throne in — and his son Cnut the Great becoming king of England — Traditionally containing large numbers of Scandinavians, it was known as the Varangian Guard.
The most eminent Scandinavian to serve in the Varangian Guard was Harald Hardrada , who subsequently established himself as king of Norway — There is archaeological evidence that Vikings reached Baghdad , the centre of the Islamic Empire. Among the Swedish runestones mentioning expeditions overseas, almost half tell of raids and travels to western Europe. According to the Icelandic sagas, many Norwegian Vikings also went to eastern Europe.
In the Viking Age, the present day nations of Norway, Sweden and Denmark did not exist, but were largely homogeneous and similar in culture and language, although somewhat distinct geographically. The names of Scandinavian kings are reliably known only for the later part of the Viking Age.
After the end of the Viking Age the separate kingdoms gradually acquired distinct identities as nations, which went hand-in-hand with their Christianisation. Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages. The first source that Iceland and Greenland appear in is a papal letter of Twenty years later, they are then seen in the Gesta of Adam of Bremen. It was not until after , when the islands had become Christianized, that accounts of the history of the islands were written from the point of view of the inhabitants in sagas and chronicles.
Later in their history, they began to settle in other lands. This expansion occurred during the Medieval Warm Period. Their realm was bordered by powerful cultures to the south. The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby.
The Saxon defeat resulted in their forced christening and the absorption of Old Saxony into the Carolingian Empire. Fear of the Franks led the Vikings to further expand Danevirke, and the defence constructions remained in use throughout the Viking Age and even up until Motives The motives driving the Viking expansion are a topic of much debate in Nordic history. One common theory posits that Charlemagne "used force and terror to Christianise all pagans", leading to baptism, conversion or execution, and as a result, Vikings and other pagans resisted and wanted revenge.
England suffered from internal divisions and was relatively easy prey given the proximity of many towns to the sea or to navigable rivers. Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted. The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role.
Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century. The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there. The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe.
The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times. With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Russia and some northern parts of Europe.
Jomsburg , was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea medieval Wendland , modern Pomerania , that existed between the s and Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings.
This period of energetic activity also had a pronounced effect in the Scandinavian homelands, which were subject to a variety of new influences. Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models.
Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming. By , the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund , Scania, then part of Denmark.
The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel overseas, and changed their relations with their neighbours. One of the primary sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking.
The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe.
This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century. Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly. The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths.
In , Sigurd I of Norway sailed for the eastern Mediterranean with Norwegian crusaders to fight for the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem , and Danes and Swedes participated energetically in the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones.
Most contemporary literary and written sources on the Vikings come from other cultures that were in contact with them. Literature and language See also: The most important primary sources on the Vikings are contemporary texts from Scandinavia and regions where the Vikings were active.
Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity. Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their culture, although they need to be treated cautiously. After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear, in Latin and Old Norse.
In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas. A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, all included in these literary writings.
Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open to their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words, found in their former sphere of influence. Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man.
The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature. Another is that the vast majority of written sources on Scandinavia in the Viking Age come from Iceland, a nation originally settled by Norwegian colonists.
As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages.
Runestones The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor, built upon sound values.
While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived. They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.
The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden and date from the 11th century. The oldest stone with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, suggesting that runic inscriptions pre-date the Viking period. Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.
Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population. The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre. It has three sides: Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man.
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